trends in coding languages

The development of software can be represented using various metaphors, such as a car or an iceberg, to explain the distinction between the front end and back end in application development.

The development of software can be represented using various metaphors, such as a car or an iceberg, to explain the distinction between the front-end and back-end in application development. Essentially, the front end represents what the user sees, while the back end encompasses what is hidden from view. However, when we take a closer look, what does the situation actually look like?

Significance of the back-end

To grasp the concept of the back-end, it is essential to first comprehend what the front-end entails. The front-end encompasses all aspects of the application that the user sees and interacts with, such as buttons, slide-out menus, animations, navigation elements, and so on. It plays a major role in the user experience and works in tandem with UI/UX designers to create an aesthetically pleasing interface. However, even the most visually appealing interface can be frustrating to use if the application is slow and unresponsive. The back-end is responsible for ensuring that such issues do not arise.

The back-end is a crucial component of software development, even though its effects are not visible to the user. It consists of the server, databases, and application and handles the processing of user data when they initiate actions, such as sending messages, opening something, or downloading. The back-end is responsible for the overall architecture, logic, infrastructure, and performance of the application, and without it, the pages would simply be static images with no functionality. The back-end requires seamless interaction with the database and constant calculations for the application to work effectively.

In conclusion, the back-end is accountable for the most critical stage of coding, and selecting the right technologies for the software is crucial. The technologies used for the back-end are a combination of separate components, such as the web server, operating system, language, and framework, that make up the development environment.

Back-end technologies

When choosing the appropriate technology, it’s important to consider factors such as the market specifics and business objectives. Additionally, a thorough analysis of the technology in question should also be conducted.

Here are three languages and their respective frameworks that we believe to be the best solutions in the back-end domain at present.


Python is widely recognized as one of the most popular programming languages, appearing at the top of platforms like Github and Stack Overflow, and was named the TIOBE Programming Language of the Year in 2020. Since its introduction in 1991, it has become the leading language for the back-end, applied in nearly all fields. This is due to its simple syntax which makes it easily understood by programmers, even those who are new to programming. Its code resembles English and each unit of code works independently, making it user-friendly. That’s why Python is often considered the simplest programming language to learn.

Python is commonly used for building websites, software, AI, data science, and machine learning. It’s also capable of handling complex AI projects and offers simple integration with other languages, GUI support, automatic garbage collection, and rapid prototyping. A major advantage of Python is its scalability and the availability of powerful frameworks and libraries.

The following are some of the well-known frameworks:


An open-source framework for web application development, designed to streamline the process of creating complex database-driven applications.


An open-source framework known for its high performance, capable of handling 10,000 connections at once. It’s for building web applications that cater to large numbers of users and offers high-quality real-time service, along with third-party authentication and authorization systems.


A micro-framework mainly used for building web applications and micro services due to its lightweight nature. Its minimalist architecture makes it easy to adapt to your specific needs and allows you to build a strong foundation for a web application.

Companies such as Spotify, Instagram, Facebook, IBM, and Lyft are using Python.


Built on JavaScript, Node.js is a back-end development platform for writing server-side scripts, as well as for server less architecture. It offers the ability to develop large-scale mobile applications and is common for Android app development. Ideal for creating chat services, games, and streaming, Node.js is lightweight and well-suited for building modular software. It boasts strong networking capabilities, with a single thread allowing for the splitting of messages and handling many concurrent connections, up to a million.

With several valuable frameworks and libraries, such as mongoose, express, jwt, or, Node.js is particularly useful for building fast and small real-time applications like messengers. NestJS, an open-source framework written in TypeScript, offers a toolkit for building server-side applications, with rules that guarantee best practices. Electron, a cross-platform solution, allows for the creation of applications with the main thread running on Node.js server and rendering threads running in Chromium. Express.js, an open-source framework, is solid for building single and multi-page web applications, offering dynamic HTML rendering, intermediaries for HTTP requests, efficient routing, and useful debugging features.

Companies such as Netflix, NASA, Trello, PayPal, LinkedIn, Walmart, Uber, Twitter, Yahoo, and eBay, among others are adopting Node.js.

3. RUBY 

Ruby is widely popular as one of the top back-end languages in the development community. The language is famous for its balance between functional and imperative programming, and for developing web and mobile applications, making the development process faster. Ruby focuses on data and objects, treating them as units for interactions, rather than individual actions. This makes Ruby particularly suitable for building e-Commerce and social networking sites.

Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a popular methodology among Ruby developers. Because it involves performing tests before writing the code, reducing the potential for errors.

Ruby is also highly flexible, allowing its users to modify parts of the language to suit their needs. The syntax uses minimal elements and often employs English keywords, making it easy to write and understand. Error handling is achieved through exceptions. Ruby also provides easy extension writing via its C language API. This allows the Ruby interpreter to use as a scripting language.

In addition to these features, Ruby benefits from powerful frameworks that enhance its capabilities. Some of the most notable frameworks include Ruby on Rails, Sinatra, and Roda.

Ruby on Rails

It is a free framework for web application development. This is popular for its transparency, simplicity, and ease of creating code without repetition. It is also easy to configure, following the Convention Over Configuration rule and using the MVP model. Ruby on Rails enables writing modular and fast code, thanks to its built-in extensions.


It is a lightweight web micro framework in Ruby. This is ideal for small and less complex projects, as it has all the necessary components for creating applications. It is also easy to use, even for novice programmers, as web applications can develop with a single file.


It is a framework for building web applications in Ruby, based on the concept of a routing tree. It offers high performance. Because each request has a lower load than with other Ruby frameworks. It is highly extensible through extensive plugin support. Its routing tree also makes it easy to write simpler code.

Prominent companies that have used Ruby for their back-end include Apple, Groupon, Dribble, and Airbnb.

Develop your software with intention and awareness.

Different companies may have varying preferences for back-end technologies. But at Applover, they believe that Python, Node.js, and Ruby are currently the top options for software back-end. They make use of each of these on a daily basis. With the aim of continued growth, it’s important to stay informed about the current trends in coding languages. These can support fast growth.

By Punit