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What Is Transplantation? What Are The Types Of Transplantation?

Transplantation is the transfer, or engraftment of human cells, tissues or organs from a donor to a recipient with the aim of restoring functions in the body. As in the transplantation journal, it is also often referred to as an organ transplant or graft.

Transplant is the process of removal of a section of tissue or an organ from its original location and transferred to a different site in the same person or a different person. Organ transplantation is a medical procedure that involves the removal of an organ is from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ. Also, read the medicinal chemistry journal.

There are different classifications of grafting depending on the types of transplant performed.

Autograft:

It is the grafting or transplanting of an organ or tissue from one part of the body to another part in the same body. Some of the examples of autografts are skin grafts, vein extractions for CABG (Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting), removal of a vein from the leg to use in heart surgery. Autograft does not require any anti-rejection drug therapy. Example: Skin grafting

Allograft:

It is the transplant of an organ or tissue between two genetically non-identical members of the same species but does not belong to the same genotypes. Most of the human tissue and organ transplants are allografts.

Transplantation of heart, lung, kidney, liver, etc. are included in this type. It is essential for the patient to take a supply of immunosuppressants or anti-rejection drugs to prevent rejection of the organ by the body.

Isograft or Synergic Graft:

Organs or tissues are transplanted from a donor to a genetically identical recipient such as an identical twin. There is no chance of the receiver body rejecting the graft as they have the same set of genetics. Example: Graft between identical twins

Xenograft:

A transplant of organs or tissue from one species to another. One of its examples is a porcine heart valve transplant, which is quite common and successful. Another example of Xenograft is the grafting of an organ between an animal and a human.

Since the chances of graft rejection are more in this type of transplant, the receiver needs anti-rejection drugs to stop the body from rejecting the transplant. This type of grafts has an extremely poor prognosis due to the presence of reactive antibodies from cross-species which induces hyperacute rejection.

Hyperacute rejection generally occurs within a few minutes of transplanting and is a complement-mediate response in recipients with pre-existing or anti-donor antibodies to the donor. Example: Animal to human

Other types of grafting include skin grafting, bone grafting, vascular grafting, and ligament grafting. The term grafting is most often used for skin grafting. Skin grafting is the process of treating loss of skin that may happen due to wounds, injuries, infections, burns, or surgeries. It reduces the need to be in a hospital or long duration of treatment.

Further, it improves the function and appearance of the skin. Skin grafting is of two types; they are split-thickness skin grafts and full-thickness skin grafts. Bone grafting is mainly used in dental implants. Vascular grafting is done primarily in surgical procedures that involve the use of transplanted or prosthetic blood vessels. Read the medicinal chemistry journal.

Grafts are commonly performed for the following organs or tissues.

  • Heart, kidneys, pancreas, liver, intestine, lungs, and thymus.
  • The grafting of tissues includes bones and tendons both, referred to as musculoskeletal grafts, cornea, skin,  nerves, heart valves, and veins.

All around the world, kidneys are the most commonly transplanted organs, followed by liver, heart and then cornea and musculoskeletal grafts.